5%; 7.5%; 10%
Levamisole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic and is effective against the following nematode infections in cattle: Stomach Worms: Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus. Intestinal Worms: Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia . Lungworms: Dictyocaulus .
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Inject subcutaneously in the mid-neck region at the rate of 2 ml per 100 lbs. of body weight. It is recommended that not more than 10 mL be injected at one site. Consult a veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment and control of parasitism. The maturation of some helminthes species may be arrested at a pre-adult stage when adult worm populations are heavy. Cattle that are severely parasitized or maintained under conditions of constant helminth exposure may require retreatment with two 2 to four 4 weeks after the first treatment. Thoroughly clean and disinfect syringes and needles by boiling in water for 20 minutes. Use 14 or 16 gauge one-half 1/2 to one 1 inch needles. Do not remove the rubber stopper from the bottle, but clean and disinfect it with 70% alcohol. With the syringe attached to a needle, insert the needle through the rubber stopper and withdraw the required dose. The proper method of injection site preparation is swabbing with 70% alcohol or other suitable disinfectant, and the proper method of administration is under a fold of skin in the middle neck region. A clean sterile needle should be used for each animal to avoid the spread of infection.
Careful cattle weight estimates are essential for the proper performance of the product. It is recommended that Levamisole be injected in cattle in stocker or feeder condition only. Cattle nearing slaughter weight and condition may show objectionable reactions at the site of injection. An occasional animal in stocker or feeder flesh may show swelling at the injection site. The swelling will subside in 7-14 days and is not more severe than that observed from commonly used vaccines and bacterins.
Keep this and all drugs out of the reach of children. Do not administer to cattle within seven 7 days of slaughter for food to avoid tissue residues. To prevent residues in milk, do not administer to dairy animals of breeding age.
Store in cool and dry place protecting from light.
PERIOD OF VALIDITY:
Hello, Acalculous cholecystitis is a gallbladder inflammation without gallstones. Patients can have signs of fever, jaundice, right upper quadrant mass and pain, and Murphy’s sign, which is gallbladder pain induced by your hand when you palpate the gallbladder at the same time as the patient inhale. Patients are usually very ill due to complications of gallbladder inflammation, like Gallbladder necrosis, gangrene, and perforation, that can lead to peritonitis, sepsis, and shock.The lab values can show increased amount of Alkaline phosphatase, Aminotransferases, Bilirubin and Leukocytes. The most important test to make is Ultrasonography. Ultrasonography can show that there are no gallstones or sludge; more than 3 mm gallbladder wall thickening, more than 5 cm gallbladder distension, a striated gallbladder, mucosal sloughing, a positive Murphy’s sign induced by the ultrasonography probe, pericholecystic fluid that indicates perforation that can lead to abscess formation, and “Champagne sign” with gas bubbles in gallbladder fundus. If Ultrasonography is not enough for diagnosis, then Cholescintigraphy, a so-called HIDA scan can be used. But it takes hours to perform, so it’s not recommended in critically ill patients in whom a delay in therapy could be deadly. Here we inject Technetium labeled Hepatic IminoDiacetic Acid that is taken up by liver cells and excreted into bile to the gallbladder. If this does not happen, then it’s an indication of acalculous cholecystitis. We can inject Morphine that helps the liver cells to secrete bile into the gallbladder, and thereby makes the diagnosis easier. We treat acalculous cholecystitis with antibiotics and surgery. Before giving antibiotics, we need to take a blood culture. While we wait for the blood culture results, we start a broad-spectrum antibiotic combination, like Ampicillin-Sulbactam, or Piperacillin-Tazobactam, or Ticarcillin-Clavulanate, or Ceftriaxone-Metronidazole. When we get the blood culture results we start to treat the specific microbes that infect the gallbladder, like for example Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas, or Proteus species. Then it’s very important to surgically operate as soon as possible. We usually start with a Cholecystostomy. But if we don’t see an improvement within 24 hours after the operation, we start Cholecystectomy immediately. Sometimes, when there is gallbladder necrosis, perforation, or emphysematous cholecystitis, we start with Cholecystectomy right from the beginning. Thank you very much for listening!