Packing 50ml/bottle, 100ml/bottle
Penicillin G procaine 200,000IU.
Dihydrostreptomycin sulphate 250,000IU.
Solvents ad 1ml
Penicillin G procaine 200,000IU.
Dihydrostreptomycin sulphate 200,000IU.
Solvents ad 1ml
Penicillin G Procaine & Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate Injection is provided as a white or off-white suspension.
Penstrep injection is indicated for use in cattle, horses, pigs and sheep in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms including: erysipelas; navel/join ill; respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis; listeriosis; meningitis; septicaemia; toxaemia associated with Salmonella spp., Salmonellosis; and the control of secondary bacterial invaders in diseases of primary viral origin. The combination of penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin is especially useful in the treatment of mixed infections involving both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.
USAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Cattle: 1 ml.per 20 kg.body weight for 3 days.
Calves, goats, sheep and swine: 1 ml.per 10 kg.body weight for 3 days.
Shake well before use and do not administer more than 20 ml. in cattle, more than 10 ml. in swine and more than 5 ml. in calves, sheep and goats per injection site.
Hypersensitivity to penicillin, procaine and/or aminoglycosides.
Administration to animals with a serious impaired renal function.
Concurrent administration with tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides and lincosamides.
Administration of therapeutic dosages of procaine penicillin G can result in abortion in sows.
Ototoxity, neurotoxicity or nephrotoxicity.
Milk: 60 hours
STORAGE AND EXPIRED TIME:
Store below 30 ℃ . Protect from light. Keep out of reach of children.Following withdrawal of the first dose, use the product within 28 days.
Filariasis (or philariasis) is a parasitic disease that is caused by thread-like roundworms belonging to the Filarioidea type. These are spread from by blood-feeding black flies and mosquitoes.
Eight known filarial nematodes use humans as their definitive hosts. These are divided into three groups according to the niche within the body they occupy:
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. These worms occupy the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes; in chronic cases, these worms lead to the disease elephantiasis.
Subcutaneous filariasis is caused by Loa loa (the eye worm), Mansonella streptocerca, and Onchocerca volvulus. These worms occupy the subcutaneous layer of the skin, in the fat layer. L. loa causes Loa loa filariasis, while O. volvulus causes river blindness.
Serous cavity filariasis is caused by the worms Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi, which occupy the serous cavity of the abdomen.
The adult worms, which usually stay in one tissue, release early larval forms known as microfilariae into the host’s bloodstream. These circulating microfilariae can be taken up with a blood meal by the arthropod vector; in the vector, they develop into infective larvae that can be transmitted to a new host.
Individuals infected by filarial worms may be described as either “microfilaraemic” or “amicrofilaraemic”, depending on whether microfilariae can be found in their peripheral blood. Filariasis is diagnosed in microfilaraemic cases primarily through direct observation of microfilariae in the peripheral blood. Occult filariasis is diagnosed in amicrofilaraemic cases based on clinical observations and, in some cases, by finding a circulating antigen in the blood.
Signs and symptoms
The most spectacular symptom of lymphatic filariasis is elephantiasis—edema with thickening of the skin and underlying tissues—which was the first disease discovered to be transmitted by mosquito bites. Elephantiasis results when the parasites lodge in the lymphatic system.
Elephantiasis affects mainly the lower extremities, while the ears, mucous membranes, and amputation stumps are affected less frequently. However, different species of filarial worms tend to affect different parts of the body; Wuchereria bancrofti can affect the legs, arms, vulva, breasts, and scrotum (causing hydrocele formation), while Brugia timori rarely affects the genitals. Those who develop the chronic stages of elephantiasis are usually amicrofilaraemic, and often have adverse immunological reactions to the microfilariae, as well as the adult worms.
The subcutaneous worms present with skin rashes, urticarial papules, and arthritis, as well as hyper- and hypopigmentation macules. Onchocerca volvulus manifests itself in the eyes, causing “river blindness” (onchocerciasis), one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Serous cavity filariasis presents with symptoms similar to subcutaneous filariasis, in addition to abdominal pain, because these worms are also deep-tissue dwellers.
Filariasis is usually diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stained, thin and thick blood film smears, using the “gold standard” known as the finger prick test. The finger prick test draws blood from the capillaries of the finger tip; larger veins can be used for blood extraction, but strict windows of the time of day must be observed. Blood must be drawn at appropriate times, which reflect the feeding activities of the vector insects. Examples are W. bancrofti, whose vector is a mosquito; night is the preferred time for blood collection. Loa loa’s vector is the deer fly; daytime collection is preferred. This method of diagnosis is only relevant to microfilariae that use the blood as transport from the lungs to the skin. Some filarial worms, such as M. streptocerca and O. volvulus, produce microfilarae that do not use the blood; they reside in the skin only. For these worms, diagnosis relies upon skin snips, and can be carried out at any time.
The recommended treatment for people outside the United States is albendazole (a broad-spectrum anthelmintic) combined with ivermectin. A combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole is also effective. All of these treatments are microfilaricides; they have no effect on the adult worms. Different trials were made to use the known drug at its maximum capacity in absence of new drugs. In a study from India, it has been shown that a formulation of albendazole has better anti-filarial efficacy than albendazole itself.
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