5%; 7.5%; 10%
Levamisole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic and is effective against the following nematode infections in cattle: Stomach Worms: Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus. Intestinal Worms: Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia . Lungworms: Dictyocaulus .
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Inject subcutaneously in the mid-neck region at the rate of 2 ml per 100 lbs. of body weight. It is recommended that not more than 10 mL be injected at one site. Consult a veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment and control of parasitism. The maturation of some helminthes species may be arrested at a pre-adult stage when adult worm populations are heavy. Cattle that are severely parasitized or maintained under conditions of constant helminth exposure may require retreatment with two 2 to four 4 weeks after the first treatment. Thoroughly clean and disinfect syringes and needles by boiling in water for 20 minutes. Use 14 or 16 gauge one-half 1/2 to one 1 inch needles. Do not remove the rubber stopper from the bottle, but clean and disinfect it with 70% alcohol. With the syringe attached to a needle, insert the needle through the rubber stopper and withdraw the required dose. The proper method of injection site preparation is swabbing with 70% alcohol or other suitable disinfectant, and the proper method of administration is under a fold of skin in the middle neck region. A clean sterile needle should be used for each animal to avoid the spread of infection.
Careful cattle weight estimates are essential for the proper performance of the product. It is recommended that Levamisole be injected in cattle in stocker or feeder condition only. Cattle nearing slaughter weight and condition may show objectionable reactions at the site of injection. An occasional animal in stocker or feeder flesh may show swelling at the injection site. The swelling will subside in 7-14 days and is not more severe than that observed from commonly used vaccines and bacterins.
Keep this and all drugs out of the reach of children. Do not administer to cattle within seven 7 days of slaughter for food to avoid tissue residues. To prevent residues in milk, do not administer to dairy animals of breeding age.
Store in cool and dry place protecting from light.
PERIOD OF VALIDITY:
From PBS and FRONTLINE – FRONTLINE investigates the widespread use of antibiotics in food animals and whether it is fueling the growing crisis of antibiotic resistance in people. Also this hour: An exclusive interview with the family of a young man who died in a nightmare bacteria outbreak that swept through a hospital at the National Institutes of Health.
Dr Theresa Manful is a researcher at the University of Ghana, Legon and a CAPREx Fellow collaborating with Professor Mark Carrington (Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge).
Animal trypanosomiasis is a disease that is caused by infection with one or more species of trypanosomes and affects both domestic and wild animals in sub-Saharan African. The disease has a serious impact on agriculture production and a direct effect on the economic development in the affected regions. There are at least five species of trypanosomes that has been detected in cattle in Ghana with the infection caused predominantly by Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense. The prevalence of animal trypanosomiasis is high, and has previously been reported to range from 5 to 50%. African trypanosomes have evolved a sophisticated system of antigenic variation that is thought to facilitate long-term infection of the host. However, there are minimal studies on how trypanosomes infection progresses over the lifetime of cattle and how infections are influenced by environment. It is not known, for example, whether an infection acquired at an early age persists for the lifetime of the animal. This study is to characterize lifetime infection with trypanosomes in individual cattle in Ghana using molecular fingerprinting and sequencing. Detection and characterization of trypanosome species present over the first four time points have been determined. Further analyses and verifications are underway. The outcome of this project will be a better understanding of animal trypanosomiasis and trypanosome biology, and will inform control strategies.