Aqueous solution for parenteral use.
Contains per ml.:
Solvents ad. 1 ml..
The main pharmacological action of the active ingredient in this solution, nitroxinil, is fasciolicidal. The lethal action against Fasciola hepatica has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in laboratory animals, and in sheep and cattle. The mechanism of action is due to uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. It is also active against triclabendazole-resistant F. hepatica.
This product is indicated for the treatment of fascioliasis (infestations of mature and immature Fasciola hepatica) in cattle and sheep. It is also effective, at the recommended dose rate, against adult and larval infestations of Haemonchus contortus in cattle and sheep and Haemonchus placei, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Bunostomum phlebotomum in cattle.
- Do not use in animals with known hypersensitivity to the active ingredient.
- Do not use in animals producing milk for human consumption.
- Do not exceed stated dose.
Small swellings are occasionally observed at the injection site in cattle. These can be avoided by injecting the dose in two separate sites and massaging well to disperse the solution. No systemic ill effects are to be expected when animals (including pregnant cows and ewes) are treated at normal dosage.
For subcutaneous injection. Ensure the injection does not enter subcutaneous muscle. Wear impermeable gloves to avoid staining and irritation of the skin. The standard dosage is 10 mg nitroxinil per kg of bodyweight.
Sheep: Administer according to the following doses scale:
14-20 kg : 0.5 ml
21-30 kg : 0.75 ml
31-40 kg : 1.0 ml
41-55 kg : 1.5 ml
56-75 kg : 2.0 ml
> 75 kg : 2.5 ml
In outbreaks of fascioliasis each sheep in the flock should be injected immediately when the presence of the disease is recognised, repeating treatment as necessary throughout the period when infestation is occurring, at intervals of not less than one month.
Cattle: 1.5 ml of Fluconix-340 per 50 kg of bodyweight.
Both infected and in-contact animals should be treated, treatment being repeated as considered necessary, though not more frequently than once per month. Dairy cows should be treated at drying off (at least 28 days before calving).
Note: Do not use in animals producing milk for human consumption.
Cattle: 60 days.
Sheep: 49 days.
Keep out of reach of children.
Glass vials of 50 and 100 ml.
Form of product : Injectables
Type of product : Anthelmintics
Suited for animals : Cattle (cows),Dogs ,Goats, Poultry, Sheep, Pigs (swine),Calves
Active ingredients : Nitroxynil
Hello, Acalculous cholecystitis is a gallbladder inflammation without gallstones. Patients can have signs of fever, jaundice, right upper quadrant mass and pain, and Murphy’s sign, which is gallbladder pain induced by your hand when you palpate the gallbladder at the same time as the patient inhale. Patients are usually very ill due to complications of gallbladder inflammation, like Gallbladder necrosis, gangrene, and perforation, that can lead to peritonitis, sepsis, and shock.The lab values can show increased amount of Alkaline phosphatase, Aminotransferases, Bilirubin and Leukocytes. The most important test to make is Ultrasonography. Ultrasonography can show that there are no gallstones or sludge; more than 3 mm gallbladder wall thickening, more than 5 cm gallbladder distension, a striated gallbladder, mucosal sloughing, a positive Murphy’s sign induced by the ultrasonography probe, pericholecystic fluid that indicates perforation that can lead to abscess formation, and “Champagne sign” with gas bubbles in gallbladder fundus. If Ultrasonography is not enough for diagnosis, then Cholescintigraphy, a so-called HIDA scan can be used. But it takes hours to perform, so it’s not recommended in critically ill patients in whom a delay in therapy could be deadly. Here we inject Technetium labeled Hepatic IminoDiacetic Acid that is taken up by liver cells and excreted into bile to the gallbladder. If this does not happen, then it’s an indication of acalculous cholecystitis. We can inject Morphine that helps the liver cells to secrete bile into the gallbladder, and thereby makes the diagnosis easier. We treat acalculous cholecystitis with antibiotics and surgery. Before giving antibiotics, we need to take a blood culture. While we wait for the blood culture results, we start a broad-spectrum antibiotic combination, like Ampicillin-Sulbactam, or Piperacillin-Tazobactam, or Ticarcillin-Clavulanate, or Ceftriaxone-Metronidazole. When we get the blood culture results we start to treat the specific microbes that infect the gallbladder, like for example Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas, or Proteus species. Then it’s very important to surgically operate as soon as possible. We usually start with a Cholecystostomy. But if we don’t see an improvement within 24 hours after the operation, we start Cholecystectomy immediately. Sometimes, when there is gallbladder necrosis, perforation, or emphysematous cholecystitis, we start with Cholecystectomy right from the beginning. Thank you very much for listening!
Natural vs Synthetic Ascorbic Acid
Natural and synthetic L-ascorbic acid are chemically identical, and there are no known difference in their biological activity. The possibility that the bioavailability of L-ascorbic acid from natural sources might differ from that of synthetic ascorbic acid was investigated in at least two human studies, and no clinically significant differences were observed.
The following problems should be expected with increased incidence with severe depletion of ascorbate: disorders of the immune system such as secondary infections, rheumatoid arthritis and other collagen diseases, allergic reactions to drugs, foods and other substances, chronic infections such as herpes, or sequelae of acute infections such as Guillain-Barre and Reye’s syndromes, rheumatic fever, or scarlet fever, disorders of the blood coagulation mechanisms such as hemorrhage, heart attacks, strokes, hemorrhoids and other vascular thrombosis; failure to cope properly with stresses due to suppression of the adrenal functions such as phlebitis, other inflammatory disorders, asthma and other allergies; problems of disordered collagen formation such as impaired ability to heal, excessive scarring, bed sores, varicose veins, hernias, stretch marks, wrinkles, perhaps even wear of cartilage or degeneration of spinal discs; impaired function of the nervous system such as malaise, decreased pain tolerance, and cancer from suppressed immune system and carcinogens not detoxified, etc. Note: I am not saying that ascorbate depletion is the only cause of the disorders, but I am pointing out that disorders of the systems would certainly predispose to the diseases and that these systems are known to be dependent upon ascorbate for their proper function. Not only is there the theoretical probability that these types of complications associated with infections or stresses could result from ascorbate depletion, but there was a conspicuous decrease in the expected occurrence of complications in the thousands of patients treated with oral tolerance doses or intravenous doses of ascorbate. This impression of marked decrease in these problems is shared by physicians experienced with the use of ascorbate such as Klenner and KaloKerinos.
For very severe illness, the dose he used was large and the most effective route was intravenous, but the intramuscular route was satisfactory. He gave at least 350 mg per kilogram of body weight (a 70 kg man is 150 pounds; thus 70 x 350 = 24,500 mg). This amount was put in 500cc of sterile water, usually dextrose, saline or Ringer’s solution. It was diluted so that there was at least 18cc of diluent to each gram of C.
Maintenance doses are established by the patient taking bowel tolerance doses 6 times a day for at least a week. He observes if there is any unexpected benefit such as clearing of sinuses, decrease in allergies, increase in energy, etc. Should any chronic problem be benefited, then the dose is decreased to the minimum amount producing the effect. Otherwise, a dose such as 4 to 10 grams a day divided in 3-4 doses is recommended. Patients who take ascorbate in large amounts over a long period of time should probably supplement with vitamin A and multiple mineral preparation.
How to make Sodium Ascorbate
Sodium Ascorbate is a buffered form of Vitamin C that consists of 90% Ascorbic Acid bound to 10% Sodium. This is the optimal form of Vitamin C for intravenous injection. So, if you have 100 grams of ascorbic acid then you would need 10 grams of baking soda, then add distilled water–so your ratio is 9:1. When adding water this mixture will begin to fizz. Mix gently until fizzing stops. What you have left is sodium ascorbate.
-8 grams of Ascorbic Acid
-500mgs of potassium bicarb
-30 mgs of zinc
Generally, the ratios are almost 100-160:10 or thereabouts
This will allow for better uptake of the minerals and the buffered C