Levamisole HCl: 2.00%w/v
Cobalt Sulphate: 0.40%w/v
Oxyclozanide and Levamisole act against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal worms and against lung worms. Oxyclozanide is a salicylanilide and acts against Trematodes, bloodsucking nematodes and larvae of hypoderma and Oestrus spp. Levamisole causes an increase of the axial muscle tone followed by paralysis of worms.
Oxyclozanide and Levamisole Oral Suspension is prophylaxis and treatment of gastrointestinal and lung worm infections in cattle, calves, sheep and goats like: Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Bunostomum, Dictyocaulus and Fasciola (liverfluke) spp.
For treatment & control of round, tape worms, liver fluke & cobalt deficiency.
LIVERFLUKE NO.1 is highly effective at a single dose rate in buffaloes, cattle sheep & goats against:
(1) All stomach and intestinal round worms including nematodirus & ostertagia species.
(2) Lung worms causing hoose & husk.
(3) Tapeworm segments.
(4) Liver flukes.
Pharmacological action: N/A
Usage and administration:
For oral administration.
Cattle, calves : 5 ml. per 10 kg. body weight.
Sheep and goats : 1 ml. per 2 kg. body weight.
Shake well before use.
LIVERFLUKE NO.1 should be used:
1. All times of the year when treatment for both liver fluke and roundworm is necessary.
2. For all brought-in stock.
3. In Summer when simultaneous control of roundworms and removal of liver fluke is required.
Normal worms’ infection without any outward signs can be seriously harmful to production. It is therefore advisable to plan dosing programme on herd or flock basis and not to wait until worm infestation breakout in the entire farm. Such programme should be related to management systems and the major danger periods of worm infection.
Side effect and contraindication: N/A
Wash hands after use of LIVERFLUKE NO.1.
Milking 24 hours and slaughtering 14days.
Storage and expired time:
Protect from heat & light. Store below 30.C.
Components of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and digestive enzymes. This video and other related animations and images are available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/gastroenterology-digestive-diseases
Voice by: Sue Stern
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The digestive system is composed of 2 main components: the gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, where digestion and absorption take place; and accessory organs which secrete various fluids/enzymes to help with digestion. The GI tract is a continuous chain of organs where food enters at one end and waste gets out from the other. These organs are lined with smooth muscles whose rhythmic contractions generate waves of movement along their walls, known as peristalsis. Peristalsis is the force that propels food down the tract.
Digestion is the process of breaking down food into smaller, simpler components, so they can be absorbed by the body. Basically, carbohydrates such as sugars and starch are broken down into glucose, proteins into amino acids, and fat molecules into fatty acids and glycerol.
Digestion starts in the oral cavity where the food is moistened with saliva and chewed, food bolus is formed to facilitate swallowing. Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands and contains the enzyme amylase. Amylase breaks down starch into maltose and dextrin which are processed further in the small intestine.
The food bolus is propelled down the esophagus into the stomach, the major organ of the GI tract. The stomach produces gastric juice containing pepsin, a protease, and hydrochloric acid which act to digest proteins. At the same time, mechanical churning is performed by muscular contraction of the stomach wall. The result is the formation of chyme, a semi-liquid mass of partially digested food. Chyme is stored in the stomach and is slowly released into the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. The duodenum receives the following digestive enzymes from accessory organs:
- Bile, produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; bile emulsifies fats and makes it easier for lipases to break them down.
- Pancreatic juice from the pancreas. This mixture contains proteases, lipases and amylase, and plays major role in digestion of proteins and fats.
The small intestine also produces its own enzymes: peptidases, sucrase, lactase, and maltase. Intestinal enzymes contribute mainly to the hydrolysis of polysaccharides.
The small intestine is where most of digestion and absorption take place. The walls of the small intestine absorb the digested nutrients into the bloodstream, which in turn delivers them to the rest of the body. In the small intestine, the chyme moves more slowly allowing time for thorough digestion and absorption. This is made possible by segmentation contractions of the circular muscles in the intestinal walls. Segmentation contractions move chyme in both directions. This allows a better mixing with digestive juices and a longer contact time with the intestinal walls.
The large intestine converts digested left-over into feces. It absorbs water and any remaining nutrients. The bacteria of the colon, known as gut flora, can break down substances in the chyme that are not digestible by the human digestive system. Bacterial fermentation produces various vitamins that are absorbed through the walls of the colon. The semi-solid fecal matter is then stored in the r. until it can be pushed out from the body during a bowel movement.
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